Mandya District is one of the most agriculturally prosperous districts in Karnataka. With the advent of irrigation from the K.R. Sagar reservoir (During 1930s), there was substantially marked transformation in cropping pattern, composition of crops, better grown yield level, ultimately leading to better economic conditions of the people.
The total geographical area of the district is 4,98,244 Hectares, out of which 2,48,825 Hectares forms the sown area. More than half of the total land area in the district is put to agricultural use. The total irrigated area is 1,16,901 Hectares out of which around 88,000 hectares is being irrigated by K.R.Sagar and around 16,000 by Hemavathi reservoir. The rest of the land is irrigated by other sources like tanks, wells and borewells.
The major crops of the district are ragi ( 85,467 ha.), rice ( 79,892 ha.), sugarcane (30,630 ha.) , pulses (predominantly horse gram and to some extent tur, cowpea, green gram, black gram, avare) and oilseeds (mainly groundnut and sesame).
Agriculture is the main activity in the district. It is dependant on rainfall, river, well and tank irrigation. Other major agricultural crops are Jowar, Maize and Horse gram.
The details of food crops grown area wise, and taluk wise and the details of production are as follows:
In the district, the major commercial crops are sugarcane sunflower and groundnut.
Climate and Crops :-
Majority of Geographical area of Mandya district is covered by Cauvery basin and agriculture in the district is classified under agro-climatic zone 6 (Southern dry Zone)
The crop sowing periods are early kharif, late kharif and summer. The average annual rainfall is 700m.m.The district gets bimodal distribution of rainfall. Generally the first peak is during April, May and the second during September, October. The month of June is known for dry spell.
The district is blessed with irrigation from two major reservoirs, Krishnaraj Sagar and Hemavathi. Besides these, there are number of anecut channels. Anecut is a low level barrage constructed across the river. The Cauvery basin is know for extensive system of low level barrages built during the 19th century and early parts of 20th Century. Hemavathi left bank canal is irrigating parts of K.R.Pet, Nagamangala, Pandavapura and Mandya taluks. In all, about 48% of the total area in the district is irrigated from all sources of irrigation.
A regional research station of the University of Agriculture, Bangalore is located in Mandya (V.C. Farm) with 600 acres of research farm. Research is carried on all major crops of the district viz., Rice [ important varieties are: Mandya Vani, Mandya Vijaya, Mangala, Madhu, Pushpa, IR30864, BR2655, KRH1 (hybrid) and KRH2 (hybrid)], Ragi [important varieties are: Indaf-1, Indaf-2, Indaf-3, Indaf-5, Indaf-7, Indaf-8, Indaf-9, Indaf-11, Indaf-15 and MR-1], Sugarcane [important varieties are: CO419, CO62175, CO7804, B37172, CO8371, CO86032], Maize [important varieties are: Ganga-11 (hybrid), NAC6004(Composite), NAC6002(Composite)]. The Research station has developed and released several high yielding, hybrids and productive packages which are popular not only in the district but also elsewhere in the State.
Agricultural Education: -
Mandya has its own Agricultural College with an annual intake of 50 students for the B.Sc. (Agriculture) course. The University has proposed to begin Ph.D. programmes in selected disciplines in agricultural science. The agricultural college in Mandya has produced outstanding B.Sc. (Agriculture) graduates. The College Campus and Research station are both located opposite to each other and the students get valuable inputs from the Agriculture Scientists.
Agricultural extension and crop development: -
Department of Agriculture in the district carries out the main function of agricultural extension, spread of technology and know-how on agriculture among farmers. Establishment of the R.S.K. (Raitha Samparka Kendra) at Hobli level, is the key element in the restructuring of the activities of the Department. There are 31 R.S.K.s in the district. (1 each in the revenue Hoblies in the district) Farmers visit the R.S.K. both for information on crop production and for purchase of inputs at subsidized rates. From the year 2001-02 R.S.K. is also the sale point for the sale of seeds of Karnataka State Seed Corporation (KSSC). The concept of RSK is highly appreciated by the farmers as both information and inputs are available at the same premises.
In addition to providing extension support to the farming community, the department implements several crop development programmes. The programmes aim at increasing productivity. The following are the important programmes:
a) National Pulse Development programme.
b) Oilseed production programme.
c) Agricultural fair and exhibition.
d) Plant Protection
e) Popularization of Bio-Fertilizers
The components in these crop development programmes include organising crop demonstration, supply of seeds at subsidised rates, supply of need based P.P. (Plant Protection) chemicals, P.P. equipments, agricultural implements including High Tech machineries (Power Tiller, mini tractor and multi crop thresher).
Mandya district is
unique in having a renowned training centre - RDTC (Rural Development training Centre).
The Centre trains farmers, farm women, under the Women Youth Training Extension Programme
(W.Y.T.E.P.). Extension functionaries of the Agriculture Department are also trained. Established in 1952, the centre is getting ready
to celebrate its golden jubilee.
Indo-Japan Agriculture Extension Training
Centre (I.J.A.E.T.C.), Mandya is the only
centre of its kind in the state established with the assistance of Japanese government
during 1970s, to organize training programmes both to officers and farmers of Mandya and the rest of the state, on various
aspects of rice production.
The Agricultural School at
Somanahalli organizes three months' training to farmers, on agriculture and other related
fields viz. Animal Husbandry, Horticulture, Watershed Development and Sericulture.
Annually three batches are trained with an intake
of 24 per batch.
Besides, the Vijaya Bank Self
Employment Training Institute, established recently in Mandya by the Lead District Bank
(Vijaya Bank) is also providing training support to the farmers of the district.
Infrastructure relating to agricultural
Karnataka State Seeds Corporation is the main supplier of seeds in the District. The Corporation has been organizing certified seed production through their registered seed growers. The seeds so grown are processed in their seed-processing unit in Mandya. Annually the Corporation handles around 15,000 quintals of seeds, predominant being rice.
Fertilizers and Plant protection chemicals
Karnataka Agro Industries Corporation (KAIC), a
public sector organization, supplies bulk of the requirement of fertilizer and plant
protection chemicals through their outlets (agro Kendra numbering 9 in the District).
Besides the KAIC, the Karnataka State Co-Operative
and Marketing Federation (KSCMF), a co-operative organization, through a network of 214
Co-operative Societies, also supplies agricultural inputs to farmers.
Agricultural Implements: -
Rayatha Agricultural Produce Co-operative and Marketing Society (RAPCMS),
another co-operative organization, manufactures and supplies agricultural implements which
are popular in the District.
Agricultural Credit: - Mandya District is known
for a network of healthy co-operative institution which provides timely short, medium and
long term loans to farmers. The Vyavasaya Seva Sahakari Sanghas at the village level
provide short term crop loans and medium term agricultural development loans to the
farmers. These Societies in turn borrow from the District Central Cooperative Society.
In all, there are 214 co-operative societies devoted to agricultural credit. Apart from
the Cooperative societies commercial banks and regional rural banks (known in
The Vyavasaya Seva Sahakari Sanghas at the village level provide short term crop loans and medium term agricultural development loans to the farmers. These Societies in turn borrow from the District Central Cooperative Society.
In all, there are 214 co-operative societies devoted to agricultural credit. Apart from the Cooperative societies commercial banks and regional rural banks (known inKarnataka as Grameena Banks) also provide short term and medium term loans for agriculture development. The Primary Cooperative Agricultural and Rural Banks, one at each Taluk, provide long term finance for agricultural development.
Agro based industries:-
Rice and sugar cane are the main
crops, wherein farmers manage to get some marketable surplus. In the District there are 35 Rice mills and 4 Sugar
factories. There are 532 Jaggery units which also help in consuming sugar cane produced in
the district. The annual production of sugar in the four sugar factories is 26,00,000
metric tonnes and jaggery produced by the Khandasari units is 10,00,000 metric tonnes.
Other service institutions in the Department of Agriculture:
1) Soil Health Centre:
Routine Soil Sample analysis for PH salt concentration, organic carbon, P2O
5 and K2O
is carried out free of cost in the soil health centre of department located in Mandya.
Besides this, on payment of a nominal service
charge micronutrients are also analyzed. The
micronutrients analyzed are zinc, iron, molybdenum, manganese etc.
2) Bio Control laboratory:- The
District has the pride of establishing the parasite laboratory for the production of
Trichograma Egg parasite against sugar cane early shoot borers. In view of environmental hazards caused by
chemical insecticides the use of environment friendly bio control agents is becoming
increasingly popular. Annually, 16825 Corcyra eggs are produced and distributed to farmers
on a nominal cost of Rs.4 per acre. Farmers from far off districts are also receiving the
parasites from our laboratory.
The major fruits grown are Jack fruit, Watermelon, Papaya, Mango and others.
The major vegetables grown are Tomato, Gourd varieties, Brinjal, ladies finger, leaf vegetables and others.
Major Plantation crops are Coconut and Areca nut.
Animal Husbandry :
Major livestock resources are Cows, Poultry, Sheep, Goats, Buffaloes and others.
Sericulture is a rural cottage industry, it has given
employment to 41393 sericulturist in Mandya
District. In Mandya in around 10349 hectares mulberry is grown, out of which 9560 hectares
is irrigated land and 789 hectares is dependent on rains. For the development of
sericulture in the district there are 22 Technical Service Centres, 1 District Unit and 1
grainage at Belakawadi.
The Main functions of the department are as follows:-
· Providing Technical assistance to Mulberry Growers, Cocoon Production and Reeling.
· Supply of new Mulberry and Silkworm eggs to farmers (Lab to Land Programme)
· Basic Stock Maintenance required for seed production and supply of disease free layings
· Supply of disinfectants to sericulturist for conducting disinfection to rearing house and equipments and bed disinfects to control silkworm diseases
· Providing of facilities to the rearers in Government Cocoon Markets to transact Cocoons at reasonable prices and facilities to the silk reelers in silk exchange to get reasonable prices to the raw silk transacted.
The irrigation facilities in the district is dominated by canals, tanks and bore wells. Mandya District is irrigated to the extent of 52% of the total sown area.
The district has forest area, which is associated with the rocky hills. It yields major and minor forest produce. The forest department has several plans and schemes to grow trees in the district. this helps to enrich the degraded forest and preserve the ecology and environment of the district.
The district has small pockets of mineral base of asbestos, Felsite, Moulding sand, Building stone, Granite, Quartz, Brick earth, etc. are found and exploited for commercial use.